As far as I know, the only book on nutrition written for popular audiences based exclusively on hard science It s readable, and radical Features both in depth discussions of various topics protein, calcium, fats, etc as well as quick overviews, so you can skim and then delve in where you wish The text is followed by recipes, which I haven t tried and probably won t, since I have plenty of veggie cookbooks But in general, this title is highly recommended if you care about what you eat. With a mega market of nutritional research present online today, a lot of which is upturned on a continual basis, the Harvard Guide is a solid well researched place to start planning your diet, or at least of knowing the what s what.Excerpts Eating rapidly digested starches, like those in white bread, a baked potato, or white rice, causes a swift, high spike in blood sugar followed by an equally fast fall This blood sugar roller coaster and the insulin one that shadows it triggers the early return of hunger pangs.To eat from food groups near the bottom of the pyramid and less from those at the top.Seven healthiest changes you can make in your diet Watch your weight Eat fewer bad fats and good fats, avoid trans fats, since they have no place in a healthful diet Eat fewer refined grain carbohydrates and whole grain carbohydrates Choose healthier sources of proteins, The best sources of protein are beans and nuts, along with fish, poultry, and eggs Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits, but hold the potatoes Use alcohol in moderation, Take a multivitamin for insurance Several of the ingredients in a standard multivitamin especially vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid, and vitamin D are essential players in preventing heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and other chronic diseases.The problem with nutritional researches They can t because these conflicts and contradictions are the way science works It happens this way in every field, fromarchaeology to zoology, nuclear physics to nutrition Men and women carry out studies and report their results Evidenceaccumulates Like dropping stones onto an old fashioned scale, the weight of evidence gradually tips the balance in favor ofone idea over another It is only when this happens that you should make changes in your life.Randomized trials often impossible to do when it comes to nutrition.Cohorts Such long term studies see Cohorts on page 32 have yielded some of the best insights so far into the link between diet and health By gathering information at the beginning, before specific diseases have occurred, cohort studies avoid the skewed recall sometimes seen among people who develop a particular disease and who would like to find an explanation for it.Case Studies researcher gathers information from a group of people who have developed a particular disease the cases and a similar group of people who are free of that disease the controls and compares the two groups for differences in diet, exercise, or whatever variable he or she is interested in.Case control studies are also prone to error and bias than cohort studies Because case control studies can be done quickly and inexpensively, they supplied the evidence for many of the early recommendations about diet and health As information emerges from cohort studies, though, we are finding that the conclusions from case control studies were often off the markMetabolic Studies The controlled conditions make it possible to see how different foods or nutrients affect changes in blood cholesterol or other biochemical markers, but they are too small and don t go on long enough to measure the effect on health Be careful about reading health books You may die of a misprint Mark TwainWatching the weight But next to whether you smoke, the number that stares up at you from the bathroom scale is the most important measure of your future health.If your weight corresponds with a BMI below 25, do everything you can to keep it there More specifically, try to keep from gainingweight, even if you could add some pounds and still stay within the healthy BMI range If your weight corresponds to a BMI above 25, you will do yourself a huge health favor by keeping it from getting larger and, if possible, by trying to bring it down.In reality, adult weight gain is neither inevitable nor innocuous.Someone who was lean at age twenty say, with a BMI of 19 can gain than twenty five pounds and still stay in the healthy range, even though this weight gain has serious health consequences.Weight control is the single most important factor in your good health after not smoking , overeating can pose serious health risks.A CALORIE IS A CALORIE IS A CALORIE So five hundred calories from ice cream, five hundred from red meat, and five hundred from pasta will have similar effects on your weight.Even when you are sleeping, your muscles are constantly using energy The muscle you have, the calories you burn, even at rest.Prevention is better than cure It is far easier to prevent weight gain than it is to lose excess weight In fact, gaining weight makes your body receptive to future weight gain and makes getting rid of extra pounds doubly difficult To make matters worse, some of the effects of excessweight, such as diabetes, heart disease, or stroke, may not fully disappear even with successful weight loss.Activity Brisk Walking What, exactly, is brisk It means moving quickly enough so your heartbeat and breathing speed up, but not so fast that you can t carry on a normal conversation It s moving as if you were late for an important meeting If you are a counter or measurer, brisk walking is taking around one hundred steps a minute or walking at a clip of three to four miles per hour.According to the Surgeon General s report, you need to intentionally burn at least two thousand calories a week to begin reaping the benefits of physical activity.For an activity to help your cardiovascular system, it must speed up your heartbeat and your breathing.Make your day active Possibilities include walking up the stairs at work instead of taking the elevator parking in a far corner of the lot and walking getting off your train or bus a stop or two early and walking the rest of the way using a rake for leaves or a shovel for snow rather than a leaf or snow blower.Avoiding saturated and trans fats and getting monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can improve your cholesterol levels, help prevent blood clots, allow your arteries to work effectively, and boost your muscles response to insulin Goingeasy on red and processed meats and eating in their place fish, nuts, beans, and poultry will reduce the risks.PRACTICE DEFENSIVE EATING Practice stopping before you are stuffed Be selective Choose small portions Beware of desserts Slow down and pay attention to your food when you eat Keep track of the calories in the foods you eat Sugary sodas and fruit drinks, for example, can be a big source of invisible calories that you can easily cut from your diet Spoil your appetite Have a snack or appetizer before eating a meal Be vigilant Try keeping it simpleDiet Hunger from eating less, not to mention cutting back on common or once favorite foods or giving them up altogether, creates cravings that can lead to cheating This can trigger feelings of failure and hopelessness These, in turn, undermine the effort andenthusiasm needed to stick with a diet.What s really needed is a plan you can sustain for years It should be as good for your heart, bones, brain, colon, and psyche as it is for your waistline Its hallmarks should be plenty of choices, relatively fewrestrictions, and few special foods.LOW FAT DIETSBy switching from fatty foods to carbohydrate rich ones, especially fruits and vegetables, you can double your food intake without taking in calories They can also leave you feeling hungry, one reason why low fat diets usually call for high fiber foods that increase the sensation of fullness as well as between meal snacks Many people find it difficult to stick with a low fat diet for a long time because it is so restrictive and because fats make food taste good.LOW CARB DIETSchicken, beef, fish, beans, and other high protein foods slow the movement of food from the stomach to the intestine Slower stomach emptying means you feel full longer and get hungrier later Second, protein s gentle, steady effect on blood sugar avoidsthe quick, steep rise and the just as quick hunger bell ringing fall in blood sugar that occur after eating a rapidly digested carbohydrate like white bread or baked potato.How well they work over the long term is anyone s guess One big unknown is the long term effects of eating a lot of protein.The Volumetrics Weight Control Plan fiddles with satiety, the body s signals that it has gotten enough food It does this by recommending foods that fill the belly without adding too many calories These tend to be water rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, low fat milk, cooked grains, beans, lean meats, poultry, and fish Soups, stews, casseroles, pasta with vegetables, and fruit based desserts get the thumbs up, while high fat foods like potato chips and dry, calorie dense ones like pretzels, crackers, and fat free cookies get the thumbs down.Unsaturated Fats vs Saturated Fats and Trans Fats In fact, eating good fats and staying away from bad ones is second only to weight control on the list of healthy nutritional strategies.Unsaturated fats are so important to good health that they support the foundation of the Healthy Eating Pyramid This acknowledges that fats and oils make up a substantial chunk of daily calories and can also have long term health benefitsThe human body can build most of the different fats it needs from any other fat in the diet, or from carbohydrates, for thatmatter A few, though, can t be made from scratch These so called essential fats, which are all polyunsaturated fats, mustcome directly from food.Our bodies don t make polyunsaturated fats, so we need to get these essential fats from plant oils like corn and soybean oil, seeds, whole grains, and fatty fish such as salmon and tuna.Not long ago, an FDA advisory panel said that trans fats are even harmful than saturated fats The Institute of Medicine went a step further, concluding that the safest amount of trans fats for humans is zero.The focus on cholesterol has ignored the fact that eggs aren t just packets of cholesterol They are very low in saturated fat and contain many other nutrients that are good for you protein, some polyunsaturated fats, folic acid and other B vitamins, and vitamin D.The latest research indicates that trans fats also fire inflammation, an overactivity of the immune system that plays key roles in the development of heart disease, diabetes, and probably other leading causes of death and disability.By the fast food industry s decision to switch the fat they use for deep frying from beef fat to heavily hydrogenated vegetable oils high in trans fats.Omega 3 derived hormones include ones that regulate blood clotting, contraction and relaxation of artery walls, and inflammation.The best source of omega 3s is fish, especially fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, herring, and sardines.If fat does influence the development of cancer, though, evidence from large cohort studies with many years of follow up show that the effect is small.People eating chips or other snacks made with olestra might be inclined to eat than usual because they are fat free Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are sugars Simple carbohydrates provide us with energy and little else.And a staggering half of these carbohydrate calories come from just eight sources soft drinks, sodas, and fruit flavored drinks cake, sweet rolls, doughnuts, and pastries pizza potato chips, corn chips, and popcorn rice bread, rolls, buns, English muffins, and bagels beer and French fries and frozen potatoes.Four things contribute to insulin resistanceObesity is at the top of the list Next on the list is inactivity The less active you are, the lower the ratio of muscle to fat you have, even if your weight is perfectly fine Muscle cells, especially if they are exercised regularly, handle insulin and glucose very efficiently Dietary fats play a modest role in insulin resistance, with low intake of polyunsaturated fat and high intake of trans fats leading to greater resistance Finally, genes play a part.HIGH CARBOHYDRATE DIETS ARE ESPECIALLY BAD FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE OVERWEIGHTGlycemic Index and Glycemic Load The higher a food s glycemic index, the faster and stronger it affects blood sugar and insulin levels As a reference point, pure glucose the rapidly digested essence of blood sugar is assigned a score of 100 On this scale, anything below 55 or so is considered a low glycemic index food A low glycemic load is considered to be anything below 10.For this reason, my colleagues and I developed the concept of glycemic load This is the amount of carbohydrate in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of that carbohydrate The biggest value of the glycemic load may be for deciding among various options When picking a snack or meal, choosing foods with a low glycemic load is excellent for your heart and your insulin making cells.REFINED GRAINS VS INTACT GRAINS Whole grain, high fiber foods have no effect on cancer,Many consumers erroneously equate low carb with low calorie In fact, many low carb products deliver just as many calories as their normal carb counterparts, and sometimes.Discover whole grain breads Forget the French fries Eat whole grains for breakfast.Proteins The bottom line is that animal and vegetable protein all by themselves have roughly equivalent effects on health What matters is the protein package.Eating protein from fish, chicken, and vegetable sources like beans and nuts and getting less from red meat and dairy products is fourth on the list of healthy eating strategies.Getting 7 8 grams of protein per twenty pounds of body weight is a good guide for most people You can hit this goal almost without thinking, given the abundance of protein containing foods.It offers strong reassurance that even eating a lot of protein doesn t harm the heart.nuts have quite a bit of fat, but these are mostly unsaturated fats that reduce LDL cholesterol and keep HDL cholesterol high.Here s the wrong way gobbling nuts on top of your usual snacks and meals At 160 calories an ounce, eating a handful of almonds a day without cutting back on anything could translate into a ten to twenty pound weight gain over the course of a year This weight would cancel out any benefit from nuts and tip the scales toward, not away from, heart disease.Here s the right way eat nuts instead of chips or chocolate as a snack.High protein foods slow the movement of food from the stomach to the intestine.The protein you eat, the calcium you excrete.No particular defining evidence on benefits of soy Also, soy contains estrogen.Fruits and Vegetables Eat many and include variety.Many components of the DASH diet contribute to its ability to lower blood pressure A follow up study showed that the single most important factor is the extra potassium provided by the fruits and vegetables There s some evidence that certain types of fruits or vegetables work against specific cancers.Drinking Drink enough so your urine is consistently clear or pale yellow rather than bright or dark yellow Minor dehydration can make you feel grumpy and tired and make it hard to concentrate.The simple sugars in soda trigger rapid and intense increases in blood sugar and insulin levels Vegetable juices tend to have fewer calories than fruit juices, but check the label to be sure, and look up the sodium content as well The biggest problem with drinking fruit juice instead of water is that many people don t eat less to adjust for the extra calories in juice That s a surefire recipe for gradual weight gain You should think of milk as an optional food, not one you need two or three times a dayRegular caffeine consumers tend to get nasty headaches if they miss their morning cup s.caffeine s activity as a diuretic a substance that stimulates the body to excrete water helps flush out the plumbing and may make urine that is too dilute to form kidney stones.Coffee and other caffeinated beverages may act like mild antidepressants.For now, don t count on tea to bring any special benefits besides a reduced risk of kidney stones and a pleasant way to begin, enjoy, or end the day.For men, study after study has shown that men who have one or two alcoholic drinks a day are 30 to 40 percent less likely tohave heart attacks than men who don t drink alcohol at all Taking a multivitamin that contains folic acid is especially important for those who drink alcohol.a number of recent studies have shown that any alcohol containing beverage offers the same benefits Red or white wine, beer, cordials, or spirits such as gin or Scotch whiskey all seem to have the same effect on cardiovascular disease Claims that the small amounts of resveratrol and other antioxidants found in red wine and grape juice prevent heart disease have yet to be proved if they do indeed offer any extra benefit, it is likely to be small.A drink a day three or times a week is far, far better for you than three or drinks one day a week.Calcium Studies have shown link between Calcium and Cancer So don t go overboard.Milk is highly efficient in delivering calcium but it also delivers other stuff with it So it s better to look for other sources of calcium Possible harmful effects of milk and calcium from milk far outweigh the potential benefits.Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone stimulate bone building activity.Lactose intolerance All babies are born with the ability to digest milk.In fact, only about a quarter of the world s adults can fully digest milk.If you enjoy milk, low fat and skim are certainly better choices than whole milk.Saturated fat, Extra calories.Too much calcium slows or even stops the conversion of inactive vitamin D to its biologically active form and so may rob the body of a natural anticancer mechanism.Vitamins Don t take two of these to get extra vitamin D, since a double dose of preformed vitamin A retinol might counteract vitamin D seffects.Vitamin K also plays one or roles in the regulation of calcium and the formation and stabilization of bone.Each antioxidant has a unique set of chemical behaviors and biological properties No single antioxidant can do the work of the whole crowd Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables is an excellent way to get antioxidants including many that haven t been discovered yet as well as fiber, minerals, and other good things important for keeping your heart and blood vessels healthy.In high amounts, vitamin A can block the effects of vitamin D, which is good for bones and muscles and has a calming effect on cancer cells The darker your skin color, the less effectively your body converts sunlight to vitamin D.The five vitamins that many people don t get enough of from their diets are Folic acid Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin D Vitamin ETidbits Losing weight isn t about deprivation It s about moderation So don t put favorite foods on a taboo list, just learn to eat them in smaller portions and less frequently General guidelines encourage 1,200 1,300 milligrams of sodium per day, with an upper limit of 2,300 milligram about the amount found in 1 teaspoon of salt.Wheat flour is not necessarily whole grain flour The less sugar the better.High BP Most cases of high blood pressure hypertension can be prevented by staying lean and physically active, consuming generous amounts of fruits and vegetables daily, and keeping salt intake low.weight control is the most important potassium, which helps keep blood pressure under control. The bestselling guide to healthy eating, debunking dietary myths, and proposing the radical benefits of low carbohydrate diet, Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy is filled with advice backed up by documented research Tara Parker Pope, The Wall Street Journal Dr Walter Willett s research is rooted in studies that tracked the health of dieters over twenty years, and in this groundbreaking book, he critiques the carbohydrate laden diet proposed by the USDA Exposing the problems of popular diets such as the Zone, South Beach, and Atkins, Dr Willett offers eye opening research on the optimum ratio of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and the relative importance of various food groups and supplements Find out how to choose wisely between different types of fats, which fruits and vegetables provide the best health insurance, and the proportions of each to integrate into their daily diet. This is exactly what I want in a nutrition book The author cites study after study and doesn t make any outlandish claims There are recipes in the book, but he s not promoting a diet or program He does provide a new food pyramid and go over why it s better than the USDA s food pyramid, with lots of scientific studies to back him up Even though its copyright date is 2001, it s been updated since then with a lot of recent data There were many things that I was surprised by in this book and now I find myself reconsidering everything that I eat Which is kind of why I read it in the first place, so that s good EDIT After reading The Big Fat Surprise , I no longer recommend this book Will leave my original review and lower from 4 stars to 1 star I consider literature that promotes eating of mainly grains and in this case even plant oils, and less meat and animal fats to be extremely dangerous Very good book As long as I don t find any better resource on healthy dieting, I ll shelf this under Everyone should read this.I am very lucky to have grown up in a household with a stay home mum who took her job very very seriously and has obsessed over nutritional facts for most of her life of course, back in the days we didn t have that much data from reliable research , so my diet has probably always been very good and varied and everyone in my family is very slim and healthy.I am also a complete moron to never have taken interest in the topic As usual, school education completely and utterly failed to prepare us for this rather essential part of real life and hence, we have an epidemic of obese people in the world now , and that s exactly where this books steps in It s a rather tough read They said in the foreword that one of the co authors specifically had the job to translate the science speak into normal people speak and they very much succeeded with that in my opinion but I think for most people, this book will still be too much to swallow.It is a bit strangely structured, and there is a lot of repetition going on but I think that is good From just my first read, without taking notes or sitting down to learn my vocabulary , I have now some fresh new knowledge burnt into my brain that I can use in every day conversations and decisions I wish the index would also show sub sub chapters One time I wanted to find something about cholesterol again and I couldn t so I had to skim through the whole book.Just from my first read I have identified some bad habits of mine that I can immediately stop eating and replace with healthier alternatives i.e drink less milk, don t eat so many magnesium supplements, eat nuts and beans I always thought those were junk foods.I will have to re read parts of the book many many times in order to come up with even good habits and identify good eating places around my office and, of course, get into a routine of stuffing my fridge with good ingredients to be able to cook healthy meals.Having a tonne of recipes at the end of the book at the 70% mark definitely helps.One small note of warning The book is heavily targeted at an American audience I m living in Asia I ll have a hard time getting my hands on most of the ingredients they suggested in their recipes it s possible, but insanely expensive.All in all, if your home library doesn t contain any books on healthy eating, stop what you are doing right now and buy this book I highly recommend this book and I think very person should read it This is not a diet book at all It s also NOT a fad diet book at all In fact, he takes issues with fad diets No, this is just plain good advice for healthy eating and healthy living This is a nutritional guidebook that is backed by research evidence Dr Willett cites long term studies such as the Nurses Health Study in order to teach the reader how and why you should eat things like kale but should eat potatoes sparingly This book is excellent for learning how to eat a healthier diet I ve incorporated his recommendations over the last few months in order to eat a healthier diet and was so happy to learn ways to eat a better and healthier diet Honestly I feel so much better now than I did a few months ago I am not craving sugary sweets the way I used to and I ve found I m sleeping better and have much energy Please do your body and your future self a huge favor and read and implement the advice of this book. Everyone should read this book, even if it s just slowly chapter by chapter over the course of a year Walter Willett, the author, is my hero and one of the greatest public health nutritionists ever It may be redundant for people who already know that real food is good for you and you need to eat a variety, everything in moderation, not a lot of soda, refined grains, blah, blah which is all stuff I knew but I STILL enjoyed reading it He has a really easy to read, entertaining writing style that lays out why things that are good for you are good for you His food guide pyramid is the one that the USDA should be promoting instead of their current one that is inconsistent with a lot of nutrition messages There s some good recipes in the back also. This book is a very level headed, well researched feels like an unfair understatement resource, that one can definitely use for as long as no new research findings emerge And even if new findings do emerge, chances are that a lot of what s in this book will still be relevant and recommended It s great to read something that s not just an opinion or the latest fad in nutrition If everyone followed this book s guidelines, I suspect we would have had a very different world. This is the best nutrition book I ve read so far It s the perfect blend of factual nutrition science, study results, explanations of bodily processes, and practical food recommendations This is my style of book than Michael Pollan s In Defense of Food, because I like to know the science behind the nutritional recommendations, and this book draws on over 40 years of research conducted at Harvard and elsewhere.The author, Walter Willett, is chairman of the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, and a professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School The diet he advocates uses the Mediterranean diet as a foundation, because it s been shown to reduce heart disease and cancer He enhances the Mediterranean diet by incorporating decades of nutritional research, resulting in what he calls a science based, multicultural approach to healthy eating Willett describes the strengths and weaknesses of several popular diets, including low fat, low carb, and low glycemic diets At the end, he includes recipes with detailed nutritional info.I was familiar with most of the nutritional advice, but there were a couple surprises Carbs are a large part of the diet, as long as they re whole grains, not refined I was most surprised by his stance on dairy, which he says is not only unnecessary in a healthy diet, but potentially dangerous He gives a very interesting explanation of the role of calcium in the diet, and advice for avoiding osteoporosis This has motivated me to do research into dairy.The Harvard School of Public Health s Nutrition Source website has a lot of this book s content online.Nutritional strategyMaintain a stable, healthy weight.Replace saturated and trans fat with unsaturated fats.Substitute whole grain carbohydrates for refined grain carbs.Choose healthier sources of protein by trading red meat for nuts, beans, chicken, and fish.Eat plenty of vegetables and fruit.Use alcohol in moderation.Take a daily multivitamin for insurance The Healthy Eating Pyramid Red meat, butter, white rice, white bread, white pasta, potatoes, soda, sweets sparinglyDairy or calcium supplement 1 2 times dayFish, poultry, eggs 0 2 times dayNuts, legumes 1 3 times dayVegetables in abundanceFruits 2 3 times dayWhole grain foods at most mealsPlant oils olive, canola, soy, corn, sunflower, peanut, other vegetable oils Daily exercise and weight controlNext to the pyramid are multivitamins and alcohol in moderation if appropriate.Exercise and weightYou shouldn t gain weight after your early 20s weight gain isn t inevitable or healthy.In a normal diet, the body converts fat, carbs, and protein to fat at the same rate The calories are equal.Exercise at least 30 minutes daily Brisk walking gives many of the same benefits as vigorous exercise.FatReplace saturated and trans fats with unsaturated fats.Replace butter and margarine with vegetable oil or margarine low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fat Sources of dietary fatMonounsaturated olives, olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, nuts, nut butter, avocadosPolyunsaturated corn, soybean, safflower, cottonseed oils fishSaturated whole dairy, red meatTrans margarine, vegetable shortening, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, deep fried foods, commercial baked goodsGet enough Omega 3 Sources fish eat twice a week , walnuts, flaxseeds, canola or soybean oil.Fish with low mercury contamination salmon, pollock, catfish, shrimp, light tuna not albacore.If you don t eat enough fish, take a fish oil supplement with 600 800 mg of EPA and DHA.Excess calories, not dietary fat, increases body fat.CarbohydratesHigh fructose corn syrup isn t the problem, sugar consumption is Decrease it.ProteinProtein sources beans, nuts, legumes, whole grains, other vegetables are best Chicken, turkey, and fish are better than beef If you want to eat dairy, choose low or non fat.Fruits and vegetablesEat for variety and color Try to eat at least one serving of the following Dark green, leafy vegetablesYellow or orange fruits and vegetablesRed fruits and vegetablesLegumes beans and peasCitrus fruitsEat potatoes sparingly they re starchy and have a high glycemic index don t count them as vegetables.Cooked or processed tomatoes have bioavailable lycopene than raw Try to eat tomatoes every day.Frozen fruit and vegetables can be as good as fresh Canned are OK if they re low in sugar and salt.DrinksCoffee has some benefits and no major health hazards Tea has no major benefits or hazards.People of middle age or prone to cardiovascular problems benefit from moderate alcohol drinking There s no benefit for young people.DairyDairy isn t an essential part of the diet 75% of humans are lactose intolerant Dairy has many potential detriments saturated fat, calories, hormones, prostate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer There are better ways to get calcium, and the detriments of dairy outweigh the benefits.Active, healthy people who get only low to moderate amounts of calcium can have low fracture rates However, there may be a small benefit to getting calcium, so older women can take calcium supplements or eat low fat dairy Men should avoid excess calcium For bone health and to prevent osteoporosis Exercise and stay active.Take 800 1000 IU of Vitamin D daily.Get vitamin K by eating at least one serving of green leafy vegetables daily.Don t get too much preformed vitamin A under 2000 IU from supplements.MultivitaminsTake a store brand multivitamin plus a Vitamin E supplement at least 400 mg day and a Vitamin D supplement 400 600 IU. I read this book based on the recommendation from my brother It is the first health book, I ve read.The key to health according to the book, based on research done by the author or his cohorts, is 1 exercise daily 2 eat proper amounts 3 whole grains at every meal 3 abundance of vegetables and fruit 4 nuts, oils with unsaturated fats olive, canola etc avoid saturated and trans fats 5 fish and some poultry 6 dairy unnecesary, meat infrequently 7 multivitamin for insurance.The diet the book teaches, seems to resemble the Mediterrean diet most closely.I like the book It quotes many research studies, and gives recipe examples A good book for those looking to improve their health.